ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ Area: Feminism Msg: #79 Date: 12-21-94 17:28 (Public) From: Bill Hillier To: All Subject: Brain Sex °°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°°° ****************************CROSSPOST*********************************** Newsgroups: soc.feminism Subject: Re: abstract thinking Date: 16 Dec 1994 18:57:10 -0500 Organization: CCR - Universites Paris VI/VII - Paris - France Sender: pw@panix.com Approved: pw@panix.com Distribution: world I though you may be interested in seeing such a study. What is your opinion about it ? [Some days ago I sent an introductory email to soc.feminism to present the context of this post, but it never appeared and I never received an explanation for it. Let's hope it get lost..] "Trends In Neurosciences", Jan 1987, P. 17-19, Camilla Persson Benbow, Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth, Department of Psychology, Iowa, USA : "(...) Gender A rather controversial and emotional topic is whether extremely high mathematical reasoning ability is or is not a biological correlate of an individual's sex. Many studies have reported sex differences in mathematical aptitude and achievement [1,2]. These studies indicate that sex differences in mathematics do not seem to occur consistently until after or at puberty and only then in areas requiring reasoning [2]. More than one major study has, however, reported differences for seven- to nine-year-olds (Dougherty, K., Herbert, M., Edenhart-Peper,M. and Small, A., unpublished manuscript). It is important to emphasize that no sex differences have been found in computational ability or the ability to apply already-learned concepts [2]. Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability have been reported among highly talented pre-adolescents [3,4]. In those studies, a test of mathematical reasoning ability (ie SAT-M), was administered to 49 747 gifted pre-adolescents. In the 9 administrations of that test over a period of 11 years, males have scored consistently higher than females by approximatively one-half standard deviation [3,4]. Since then more than 100 000 additional students have been tested across the United States with similar results, and these findings have been replicated in other countries as well. Although the consistent mean difference favoring males has important implications, the significant result is that the sex difference is especially large among the most talented. There were many more extremely mathematically talented boys than girls (e.g. at the top 1 in 10 000 level there are about 12 males for each female). This large sex difference seems to have important long-term consequences. [5] That biological factors may be involved in causing the sex difference is given credence by the fact that solely environmental explanations of those results have proven lacking [3,4,5]. For example, among students who took the mathematical reasoning test, there were no sex differences in attitudes towards mathematics [5] and course- taking [4,5]. Additionally, there wasno evidence on the basis of sex for any differential encouragement by parents for the study of mathematics [6]." 1 - Deaux, K. (1985), Annu. Rev. Psychol., 36, 49-81 2 - Fennema, E. (1974), J. Res. Math. Ed., 5, 126-139 3 - Benbow,C.P. and Stanley, J.C. (1983), Science, 222, 1029-1031 4 - id. (1980), id. , 210, 1261-1264 5 - id. (1982), Amer. Educ. Res. J., 19, 598-622 6 - Fox, L.H., Brody, L. and Tobin, D. (1982) Report to the National Institute of Education Excerpt from 4 "Huge sex differences have been reported in mathematical aptitude and achivement [2 above]. In junior high school, this sex difference is quite obvious : girls excel in computation, while boys excel on tasks requiring mathematical reasoning ability. (...) Six separates SMPY talent searches were conducted. In the first three searches, 7th and 8th graders, as well as accelerated 9th and 10th graders, were eligible; for the last three, only 7th graders and accelerated students of 7th grade were eligible. In addition, in the 1976, 1978, and 1979 searches, the students had also to be in the upper 3 percent in mathematical ability as judged by a standardized achievement test, in 1972 in the upper 5 percent, and in 1973 and 1974 in the upper 2 percent. Thus, both male and female talent-search participants were selected by equal criteria for high mathematical ability before entering. Girls constituted 43 percent of the participants in these searches. Table 1. Performance of students in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth in each talent search (N = 9927). Test date Grade Number Percentage scoring above Boys Girls 600 on SAT - M Boys Girls March 1972 7 90 77 7.8 0.0 8+ 133 96 27.1 0.0 January 1973 7 135 88 8.1 1.1 8+ 286 158 22.7 8.2 January 1974 7 372 222 6.5 1.8 8+ 556 369 21.6 7.9 December 1976 7 495 356 5.5 0.6 8+ 12 10 58.3 0.0 January 1978 7 and 8+ 1549 1249 5.3 0.8 January 1979 7 and 8+ 2046 1628 3.2 0.9 Emmanuel Marin marin@ccr.jussieu.fr --- DB 1.58/908980 * Origin: Mens Rights Forum - 210-979-6150 - San Antonio,Tx (1:387/590)