EXEGESIS ON THE WICCAN REDE
EXEGESIS ON THE WICCAN REDE
by Judy Harrow
originally published in HARVEST - Volume 5, Number 3 (Oimelc, 1985)
second publication: THE HIDDEN PATH - Volume X, Number 2 Beltane, 1987)
All religions began with somebody's sudden flashing insight,
enlightenment, a shining vision. Some mystic found the way and the words to
share the vision, and, sharing it, attracted followers. The followers may
repeat those precise and poetic words about the vision until they congeal
into set phrases, fused language, repeated by rote and without understanding.
Cliches begin as great wisdom - that's why they spread so fast - and end as
ritual phrases, heard but not understood. Living spirituality so easily
hardens to boring religious routine, maintained through guilt and fear, or
habit and social opportunism - any reason but joy.
We come to the Craft with a first generation's joy of discovery, and a
first generation's memory of bored hours of routine worship in our childhood.
Because we have known the difference, it is our particular challenge to find
or make ways to keep the Craft a living, real experience for our
grandchildren and for the students of our students.
I think the best of these safeguards is already built into the Craft as
we know it, put there by our own good teachers. On our Path, the mystic
experience itself is shared, not just the fruits of mysticism. We give all
our students the techniques, and the protective/supportive environment that
enable almost every one of them to Draw the Moon and/or Invoke the God. This
is an incredibly radical change from older religions, even older Pagan
religions, in which the only permissible source of inspiration has been to
endlessly reinterpret and reapply the vision of the Founder (the Bible, the
Book of the Law, the Koran, ... ). The practice of Drawing the Moon is the
brilliant crown of the Craft.
But notice how often, in the old myths, every treasure has its
pitfalls? I think I'm beginning to see one of ours. Between the normal
process of original visions clotting into cliche, and our perpetual flow of
new inspiration, we are in danger of losing the special wisdom of those who
founded the modern Craft. I do not think we should assiduously preserve every
precious word. My love for my own Gardnerian tradition does not blind me to
our sexist and heterosexist roots. And yet, I want us to remain identifiably
Witches and not meld into some homogeneous "New Age" sludge. For this, I
think we need some sort of anchoring in tradition to give us a sense of
identity. Some of the old sayings really do crystallize great wisdom as well,
life-affirming Pagan wisdom that our culture needs to hear.
So I think it's time for a little creative borrowing from our
neighbors. Christians do something they call "exegesis;" Jews have a somewhat
similar process called "midrash." What it is is something between
interpretation and meditation, a very concentrated examination of a
particular text. The assumption often is that every single word has meaning
(cabalists even look at the individual letters). Out of this inspired
combination of scholarship and daydream comes the vitality of those paths
whose canon is closed. The contemporary example, of course, is Christian
Liberation Theology, based on a re-visioning of Jesus that would utterly
shock John Calvin.
Although our canon is not closed - and the day it is is the day I quit
-I'm suggesting that we can use a similar process to renew the life of the
older parts of our own still-young heritage.
So, I'd like to try doing some exegesis on an essential statement of
the Craft way of life. Every religion has some sort of ethic, some guideline
for what it means to live in accordance with this particular mythos, this
worldview. Ours, called the Wiccan Rede, is one of the most elegant
statements I've heard of the principle of situational ethics. Rather than
placing the power and duty to decide about behavior with teachers or
rulebooks, the Rede places it exactly where it belongs, with the actor.
eight words the Wiccan Rede fulfill:
AN IT HARM NONE, DO WHAT YOU WILL.
I'd like to start with the second phrase first, and to take it almost word
do what YOU will. This is the challenge to self-direction, to figure out
what we want, and not what somebody else wants for us or from us. All of us
are subject to tremendous role expectations and pressures, coming from our
families, our employers, our friends, society in general. It's easy to just
be molded, deceptively easy to become a compulsive rebel and reflexively do
the opposite of whatever "they" seem to want. Living by the Rede means
accepting the responsibility to assess the results of our actions and to
choose when we will obey, confront or evade the rules.
do what you WILL. This is the challenge to introspection, to know what we
really want beyond the whim of the moment. The classic example is that of the
student who chooses to study for an exam rather than go to a party, because
what she really wants is to be a doctor. Again, balance is needed. Always
going to the library rather than the movies is the road to burnout, not the
road to a Nobel. What's more, there are others values in life, such as
sensuality, intimacy, spirituality, that get ignored in a compulsively
long-term orientation. So, our responsibility is not to mechanically follow
some rule like "always choose to defer gratification in your own long-term
self interest," but to really listen within, and to really choose, each time.
DO what you will. This is the challenge to action. Don't wait for Prince
Charming or the revolution. Don't blame your mother or the system. Make a
realistic plan that includes all your assets. Be sure to include magic, both
the deeper insights and wisdoms of divination and the focusing of will and
energy that comes from active workings. Then take the first steps right now.
But, beware of thoughtless action, which is equally dangerous. For example,
daydreaming is needed, to envision a goal, to project the results of actions,
to check progress against goals, sometimes to revise goals. Thinking and
planning are necessary parts of personal progress. Action and thought are
complementary; neither can replace the other.
When you really look at it, word by word, it sounds like a subtle and
profound guide for life, does it not? Is it complete? Shall "do what you
will" in fact be "the whole of the law" for us? I think not. The second
phrase of the Rede discusses the individual out of context. Taken by itself,
"DO WHAT YOU WILL" would produce a nastily competitive society, a "war of
each against all" more bitter than what we now endure. That is, it would if
it were possible. Happily, it's just plain not.
Pagan myth and modern biology alike teach us that our Earth is one
interconnected living sphere, a whole system in which the actions of each
affect all (and this is emphatically not limited to humankind) through
intrinsic, organic feedback paths. As our technology amplifies the effects of
our individual actions, it becomes increasingly critical to understand that
these actions have consequences beyond the individual; consequences that, by
the very nature of things, come back to the individual as well. Cooperation,
once "merely" an ethical ideal, has become a survival imperative. Life is
relational, contextual. Exclusive focus on the individual Will is a lie and a
The qualifying "AN IT HARM NONE," draws a Circle around the individual
Will and places each of us firmly within the dual contexts of the human
community and the complex life-form that is Mother Gaia. The first phrase of
the Rede directs us to be aware of results of our actions projected not only
in time, as long-term personal outcomes, but in space - to consider how
actions may effect our families, co-workers, community, and the life of the
Earth as a whole, and to take those projections into account in our
But, like the rest of the Rede, "an it harm none" cannot be followed
unthinkingly. It is simply impossible for creatures who eat to harm none. Any
refusal to decide or act for fear of harming someone is also a decision and
an action, and will create results of some kind. When you consider that
"none" also includes ourselves, it becomes clear that what we have here is a
goal and an ideal, not a rule.
The Craft, assuming ethical adulthood, offers us no rote rules. We will
always be working on incomplete knowledge. We will sometimes just plain make
mistakes. Life itself, and life-affirming religion, still demands that we
learn, decide, act, and accept the results.